Monday, October 23, 2006

Research Proposal

The following file is my research proposal.

click (Please click the "2006-research proposal")

Saturday, October 14, 2006

5 Annotated Bibliography from Books and Journals

1 Sen, Amartya. (2001) The Many Faces Of Gender Inequality. New Republic, 225(12), 35-41.

This research focuses on the different forms of gender inequality around the world. It includes mortality inequality, natality inequality, ownership inequality, and household inequality between men and women. This article also talks about the reasons behind these inequalities. At the end of the paper, the author gives suggestion on how gender bias can eradicated.

1. "Gender inequality exists in most parts of the world, from Japan to Morocco, from Uzbekistan to the United States. Yet inequality between women and men is not everywhere the same. It can take many different forms. Gender inequality is not one homogeneous phenomenon, but a collection of disparate and inter-linked problems." (Sen,2001,Paragraph2)
2.According to Sen(2001), there are different forms of gender inequality in the world. In varied nations, there are dissimilar kinds of gender inequality problems.
3. From Sen's (2001) report, there semms to be many kinds of gender inequality problems inthe society that we live. The reason for the gender inequality problems is not totally the same.
4. Generally this article is readable and the author is believable. The author received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1998.

Relationship with my topic---What I think?
The idea of paragraph 2 can be used in the part of explaining the reason of why gender inequality is caused.
2. The 7th and 9th paragraph of this article is useful. These two paragraphs explain the professional inequality and the household inequality between the genders. There are many useful and supporting observations and examples for my research paper.
3. In the third part of the article, there are gender inequality problems that happen in South Asia. These problems might be the examples in my research paper.


2 Call Number: 305.4 T553
Tsui, Yi-Lan (Elaine). (1987) Are Married Daughters "Spilled Water"?-A Study of Working Women in Urban Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: National Taiwan University.

In this book, Tsui studied the process of women's changing roles through time in a patrilineal society. First, she explained the change of women's position in the society such as their role of the Taiwanese society and economics. Then she took the educated females as the interviewers of this paper, and tried to figure out what would be changed when the female role was different frrom the past. At the end of the paper, the author found that there were new negative effects to the traditional social structure when the female role was changed.

"Traditionally, Chinese women in general are subordinate to men. Women's activities were restricted to their homes, while men involved themselves in the world beyond the domestic sphere. Women were praised for being obedient, timid, and reserved rather than being assertive and independent. Education has always been highly praised in Chinese society. Chinese parents, however usually consider educating daughters beyond the needs of household management unnecessary and even harmful." (Lang, 1946:47,212)
2. According to Tsui, Chinese traditional concept of female is subordinate to men, so daughtrs are encouraged to do the domestic work instead of studying as their brothers do. Tsui thinks that it is because a dauther is lost when she marries to another family after marriage. Therefore, parents give less finance and education to their daughters.

The relationship with my topic---What I think?
From Tsui's report, I found out that because the social condition in Taiwan in the 80th was not very decent for female to work. Therefore, parents gave less support to their daughters and made daughters had no opportunity to learn more working ability.


3 Wang, Alice. (1998) Taiwan and social liberalism:Doomed marriage or match made in heaven? Washington Quarterly, 21, 13-17.

This article examines social liberalism in Taiwan. Asian values are still important to Taiwanese society. For example, Chinese will date with someone who wants to get married instead of just hook up another. In other words, the implications of gender equality are related to traditional Chinese culture. In this compostition, the author also talks about the status of feminism in the country.

1. "First, though still embeded in "Asian values," Taiwan is beginning to question its traditional views on gender relations. and second, the idea that East and West are starkly dualistic forces is simply wrong. Taiwan is not merely a foil for the West but a complex society struggling to crystallize its priorities amidst a swirl of cultural confusion."
2. "Just 10 minutes into the show I could draw up a conventional list of "Asian values" still permeating Taiwanese society filial piety, patriarchy, work ethic, fatalism, respect for tradition, conservative views on sex. But by the end of the show it was also obvious that the Taiwanese have begun to question their traditional assumptions about gender relations."
3."Yet social reforms lag behind, especially in the area of gender equity. Until the 1985 revision of the Book of Family in the Civil Code, women had no rights to matrimonial property and were essentially unable to file for divorce. Even the 1985 revision did not apply retroactively and left a "patrilocal residence" clause to close off the divorce option for women abandoned by their husbands. Until 1994 Taiwanese divorce laws practically required judges to award child custody to fathers. Even now, proving spousal abuse requires a woman to present certificates from a hospital demonstrating that she has been injured by her husband at least three times within the past three months."

Relationship with my topic----What I think?
According to Wang, Chinese people are restricted to Chinese concept. Although the traditional concepts are old and respectable, there are some false ideas in them In the article, the author mentions the unfair situation for women in different times. Therefore, we have to change some the false traditional concepts.


4 Chao, Elaine. (2005) A Study In Social Change. Critical Asian Studies, 37, 29-51.

This paper mainly discusses the improvement of altering the situation of domestic violence. Ethnographic research on the origins, development, and operations of the domestic violence prevention movement shows how individuals from diverse backgrounds acted collectively to achieve this social reversal. In 1998, the domestic violent culminted in the Domstic Violence Prevention and Treatment Act. The domestic violence prevention movement in Taiwan provides a valuable case study of social change and a model for other East Asian countries interested in passing similar legislation.

"Taiwan has dramatically improved its response to domestic violence within the last fifteen years, becoming the first East Asian country to pass major legislation criminalizing domestic violence." (Chao, 2005)
2. According to Chao, the phenomena of domestic volence have decreased. There are many efforts made by many feminist social networks. There is the reason of growing economics. Therefore, the domestic violence has decreased.

Relationship with my topic---What I think?
The improvement of altering domestic violence in Taiwan is a very precious experience. It takes a long time to reach the goal. However, there are still omissive points that we can do to wipe out domestic violence.


5 Marsh, Robert M. (1998) Gender and Pay in Taiwan. International Journal of Comparative Sociology,39, 115.

Present information which relates to the discrimination among women and men employees in Taiwan, in regard to salaries attained by both sexes. According to Marsh's research in 1963 and 1991, there is not significant change of supporting "equal pay for queal work" despite of massive economic development and social modernization. Marsh explained that there were three set of hypothesized causal variables: a person's objective status, subjective life chances, and involvement in the kinship system.

"In Taiwan as in the United States, even in the same industry and work status there is an earnings gap between men and women." (Marsh, 1998)
2 .According to Marsh, no matter in Taiwan or in U.S., there are gender inequalities in the professional field. Women always have to face the the difficulities such as low payment.

Relationship with my topic---What do I think?
From Marsh's article, an abvious obstacles for women in their professional fields can be easily discovered. The obstacle, low pay for women, can be seen as part of gender inequality.

Sunday, October 08, 2006

5 bibliographic references from internet

Topic: Gender Inequality in Taiwan

1 Yu, Mei-Nu. (2002). "從立法到執法談兩性工作平等法之落實"[Discuss the Act of Equal Employment from setting the act to executing the act] 國際婦女法學會中華民國分會簡訊(FIDA),8. Retrieved Oct. 8,2006 from <>

This article mainy talks about the Act of Equal Employment, and the meaning of this Act brings to Taiwanese. In 2000, the Act of Equal Employment is past in the Legislative Yuen, and the Act enacted on December 21, 2001. The Act tells Taiwanese that women can be treated equally and protected by the law in their profession. Moreover, it also tells us that the responsibility of children care in not only mothers' job but also fathers'. This article also expresses that although the law has been enacted, there are still some issues we must know. In other words, we have to change our concept of traditional ideas, so we can truly become a equal country for both genders.

1. "Although the Constitution indicates that citizens in Taiwan are all equal no matter their sex is male or female...However, in reality these ideasor laws which express gender equality and human-right protection can not be seen in the real life particularly in the labor market."
2. "women usually suffer sex discrimination in the labor market, and they think it is their fates. They have no place to appeal against this discrimination."
3. According to Yu, women in the labor market always had more difficulty to face because of their sex. Women were forced to accept this kind of discrimination in profession.

The relationship with my topic----What do I think?
From Yu's idea, the gender inequality in the professioanl field is very serious. Women are forced to agree with the discrimination because they don't have the support of appeal against deiscrimination. Therefore, Yu's idea can support my paper with the discrimination in profession part.


2 Dung, Chih Sen (1995, March 8), 勞基法 不疼惜 這兩百萬女性. [Labor Standards Law Does Not Protect These Two-Million Women.] United Daily Newspaper, p.39. Retrived Oct. 8, 2006 from <>

The journalist expresses that there are many obstacles against gender equality in patriarchal society of Taiwan, and how cheerful women feel when the Act of Equal Employment are encacted. He also gives the readers real cases of gender inequalities that force many people lost their jobs in Taiwan. For example, the case of Yang-Ming Shan Bank(陽明山合作信用社). In this bank, female employees have to sign a contract that indicates that if female employees get married, they have to quit their jobs. This contract brings to Taiwanese society a shocking news, and make Taiwanese start to notice the problems.

"in 1995, Executive Yuen indicated that 59,000 people had been fired due to the "single clause" (Dung, 1995, March 8)
2. "According to Council of Labor Affairs' report in 1995, there were 20,000 female employees are dismissed because they get married." (Dung,1995, March 8)
3. According to Executive Yuen and Council of Labor Affairs' report, we can easily find out that females are unequally treated in the professional field. They can be dismissed because they get married!

The relationship with my topic---What I think?
Many female employees were dismissed because they get married. This is a very absurd and illegitimate act now but in just few years ago, the problems are still can be seen. I can put this news in my research paper to support that there is really gender discrimination in profession. Besides, there are many inequality in the Civil Law in Taiwan which can be imporved and given suggestions in my research paper.


3 Awakening Foundation. (2003) "2:81! 優秀的女生進不了軍校?-抗議性別歧視的軍校招生" [2:81! Why such Excellent Females Can Not Study In Military School?- Oppose Gender Bias Of Military School.], 婦女新知基金會 (Awakening Foundation) Retrived on Oct. 8,2006 from <>

Awakening Foundation opposed the gender bias of military schools. In 2003, there were three girls with great grades, and they were qualified to enter the military school. However, due to the quantity of students, the school only recruited two of the female students at the end. The incident made the foundation to survey the equality between genders in military school.

1. "婦女新知基金會細查國防大學的招生簡章發現,在國防管理學院部分,招收軍費生的女男比例為2名:81名,而依據九十二學年度軍事學校正期班、專科班聯合招生簡章,我們發現,在正期班招生部份的女男比例為54名:865名,也就是說預定招收的女性學員僅佔總額不到6﹪。在專科班部分,招收的女男比例為0名: 680名,也就是一個女生都不招收(請見下列附件一)。 " (Awakening Foundation, 2003)


小計: 男性865/女性54 比例(﹪):男:女 =94.12:5.88

小計:男性680/女性0比例(﹪): 男:女 =100:0
總計:男性1545/女性54比例(﹪):男:女 =96.62:3.38
(Awakening Foundation, 2003)

2. "婦女新知基金會曾致電國防管理學院,詢問招生性別比例制定原則,國防管理學院表示是依國防部役政規劃處核定名額來招生,而役政規劃處表示招生名額的訂定是依二個原則,第一、各單位用人需求;第二、部隊任務特性。我們認為,依照上述二項原則,招生訂定都不應該有性別的差別待遇。以國防管理學院為例,目前有包括法律系、資管系、企管系、會計系、統計系等六個系,然僅有法律系招生女性軍費生二名,此次法律系因為招生限制而鬧得滿城風雨,但相較於法律系,其他科系更是緊閉大門,阻斷了女性進入的可能。在此,我們不能理解,何以國防部各單位呈報用人需求時,有如此的性別比例差異,是否台灣的軍事系統認定不論部隊任務特性為何,女性皆不適宜擔任軍職,進而導致軍費生錄取人數的性別差異。"
(Awakening Foundation,2003)

3. According to the news release, the military school offered only few of opportunity to females. The percentage for females to study in the military was very low.
4. From the report of Awakening Foundation's servey, although the governemnt had practised the Act of Equal Employment for Men and Women, gender bias and gender inequality still existed in the society. We still have to struggle for the women's right.

The relationship with my topic---What do I think?
This can be a good example of gender inequality in profession in Taiwan although the Act of Equal Employment for Men and Women had been carried into execution before the incident.


4 Awakening Foundation. (2005) "多元姊妹,多元姓氏---打破漢人父權中心主義的迷思" [Multi-Ethnicities, Multi-Surnames---Break the idea of centering the Chinese Patriarchism], 婦女新知基金會 (Awakening Foundation] Retrived on Oct. 8, 2006 from

Although we live in the 21th century, our concept of human right in Taiwan is not good enough. This article claims that women as men should have the legal right to choose their last name from one of their parents. However, Taiwanese law is very strict about the right to name their children. Men always have the legal right to give his last name to their ascendants, but women donot have the right.

1. "強調多元文化的21世紀,我們看到家庭模式也走向多元型態,包括單親、同居、跨國婚姻、原漢通婚等各種新的家庭類型大量出現,然而法律上對於家族姓氏此一象徵符號,卻仍堅持陳腐而單一的漢人父系中心主義,迫使許多單親媽媽、原住民母親、外籍配偶等母親們及其子女,無法得償心願、選擇她們想要的姓氏。" (Awakening Foundation, 2005)
2. "張菊芳律師指出,以各國立法例來看,許多國家,諸如德國、中國、加拿大、丹麥、日本等國法律,都對父系和母系保有同樣尊重。基於父母血緣各半,且戶籍法已有完整之登記制度,不會發生血統混淆、淵源無法稽考之問題,因此我們建議民法第一千零五十九條應修正成「子女之姓氏,由父母約定從父姓、母姓或父母之姓。未約定或約定不成者,於辦理出生登記時,由主管機關以抽籤定之」。" (Awakening Foundation, 2005)
3. According to the article, Law No. 1059 of Civil Law in Taiwan doesn't help the progress of the human right and gender equality. According to the law, ascendants can only accept their last names from their fathers instead of their mothers. Besides, as we take the examples from foreign countries such as Germany, Canada, Japan...etc., the civil laws give respect to both mothers and fathers, and offer them the rights to give last name from eithter fathers or mothers to their children.

The topic related to my topic---What do I think?
The concept of this article really give me deep impression. Giving last name from the father side to the children haven't ever been questioned. However, it can be seen as part of gender inequality.


5. Awakening Foundation. (2004) "取消招募歧視 公部門不應繼續違反兩性平等法!" [Cancel the Gender Discrimination of Prefession---the government should not work against the Act of Equal Employment for Men and Women], 婦女新知基金會(Awakening Foundation). Retrived on Oct. 8, 2006 from <>

In this article, Awakening Foundation tries to tell the readers that there are many inequalities of female profession in Taiwan nowadays. Women are always bound by unreasonable and absurd reasons that stop women to work. Awakening Foundation urges Taiwanese to improve this situation and asks the governemnt to correct the mistake.

1. "今年五月,台北市勞工局兩性工作平等委員會針對行政院海巡署,於招生簡章中,女性名額只佔總人數145人中的10名,裁定此為性別歧視,並罰款一萬元,事因違反兩性工作平等法第七條有關雇主對於「該工作非由特定性別者從事,否則不能完成或難以完成」之意旨。這是國內首次有國家考試招募被裁定違反「兩性工作平等法」,台北市勞工局兩性工作平等委員會對於兩性工作平等法的落實,我們給予肯定。我們認為台北市勞工局兩性工作平等委員會的裁定,反映出政府部門已有自我反省及自我監督的能力,能夠體察職場性別平等對於女性的重要性,繼而改善女性於職場上扭曲的地位與處境。然而,公部門對於女性的招募歧視仍屢見不鮮。"
(Awakening Foundation, 2004)
2. "我們認為除了海巡署一案,層出不窮的公部門招募歧視,不但違反兩性工作平等法,更違背性別平等此一普世價值,公部門帶頭違反兩性工作平等法之情形,實有檢討改進之必要。因此我們再次大聲疾呼,不要將性別歧視隱藏在招生或考試簡章中,以「工作性質較適合男性」、「考量工作環境及女性生理、家庭及家護照顧」等種種似是而非、傳統性別刻板印象的說法,來逃避應該面對的性別平等之課題。而是應在招生或考試的簡章中,清楚說明未來工作性質與職務分配狀況。讓有意願報考者,可以有全面性的資訊以供參考,進而衡量自身之情形是否符合工作需求來決定報考與否。畢竟,照顧家庭是兩性共同的責任,不能僅以「女性對於家庭有照護之問題」,即對女性之工作機會予以剝奪。" (Awakening Foundation, 2004)
3."所謂的「適才適所」,應是考量個別差異,而非籠統的一昧將之歸類為性別差異。部會機關應該考量的是,所用之人是否符合工作所需,而非膚淺且表面的以性別為用人標準。故我們嚴正要求,其他仍進行招募歧視的公部門,即刻改變招募規則,取消性別限制。我們亦要求勞委會拿出執法的魄力,全面檢視公部門招募之要件以及要求國防部取消招生之不當限制,以達到真正落實兩性工作平等法之目的。" (Awakening Foundation, 2004)

The relationship to my topic---What do I think?
The examples above point out the real case of gender inequalities in professional field which females often counter. Although there are protection from the law such as the Act of Equal Employment for Men and Women, some departments of the goverment still recruit female employees with discrimination. Besides, the reason which the employers offer is not reasonable. I think this part can be used in my research paper as the evidence of gender inequality in professional field and the reasons of gender discrimination can support my points of view, too.